Table 2

Injury details by vehicle type

GC (n=179)ATV (n=496)P value*
Patient position in vehicle, n (%)<0.0001
 Driver24 (13)232 (47)
 Passenger77 (43)135 (27)
 Unknown78 (44)129 (26)
Ejection from vehicle, n (%)<0.0001
 Yes65 (36)84 (17)
 No9 (5)34 (7)
 Unknown105 (59)378 (76)
Injury severity score, median (IQR)5 (4–10)5 (4–10)0.40
GCS category at presentation, n (%)0.24
 Normal (GCS=15)140 (78)356 (72)
 Abnormal (GCS≤14)16 (9)54 (11)
 Unknown23 (13)86 (17)
Anatomic region injured, n (%)
 Head, any109 (61)249 (50)0.01
 Head, with intracranial injury60 (34)95 (19)<0.0001
 Neck3 (2)18 (4)0.20
 Chest15 (8)59 (12)0.20
 Abdomen/pelvis/perineum/lower back16 (22)57 (11)0.35
 Extremities69 (39)278 (56)<0.0001
 Burn2 (1)7 (1)1.0
Overall injury pattern, n (%)<0.0001
 Multisystem35 (20)162 (33)
 Isolated head, without intracranial injury28 (16)55 (11)
 Isolated head, with intracranial injury50 (28)57 (11)
 Isolated extremity45 (25)141 (28)
 Other single system2 (1)13 (3)
 Superficial/unknown15 (8)54 (11)
Traumatic brain injury severity0.04
 None70 (39)247 (50)
 Mild or unspecified (GCS 14–15)99 (55)220 (44)
 Moderate or severe (GCS<13)10 (6)29 (6)
  • 2 or Fisher’s exact tests for categorical variables; Wilcoxon rank-sum tests for continuous variables.

  • ATV, all-terrain vehicle; GC, golf cart; GCS, Glasgow Coma Scale.