Table 4

Multivariable analysis of SSRF performance of 20 949 patients with isolated chest injury, defined as AIS score ≤1 for non-chest areas

VariableTrauma centerNon-trauma center
OR (95% CI)P valueOR (95% CI)P value
Provider category (relative to general surgery)
Orthopedic surgery1.02 (0.11–8.87)0.9855.67 (4.38–7.35)<0.001
Thoracic surgery1.63 (0.32–8.06)0.54919.67 (15.04–25.73)<0.001
Age0.98 (0.97–0.98)<0.0010.98 (0.98–0.99)<0.001
Male gender1.90 (1.42–2.54)<0.0011.48 (1.26–1.75)<0.001
Race (relative to non-white designation)1.11 (0.79–1.55)0.5301.21 (0.98–1.49)0.073
Fracture type (relative to single rib)
Flail chest900.22 (398.45–2033.88)<0.001563.07 (383.63–826.44)<0.001
Multi-rib fractures, non-flail48.52 (23.62–99.64)<0.00118.95 (15.12–23.75)<0.001
Number of Elixhauser comorbidities1.05 (0.98–1.14)0.1380.97 (0.93–1.02)0.339
Region (relative to Midwest)
Northeast0.79 (0.53–1.17)0.2490.63 (0.50–0.80)<0.001
South0.59 (0.41–0.86)0.0060.69 (0.56–0.84)<0.001
West1.33 (0.89–1.98)0.1511.14 (0.88–1.48)0.297
Urban location vs. rural1.29 (0.86–1.92)0.2041.48 (1.16–1.88)0.001
Teaching hospital vs. non-teaching0.89 (0.64–1.24)0.5090.71 (0.60–0.85)<0.001
Max AIS chest1.20 (1.04–1.39)0.0090.86 (0.80–0.94)0.001
  • AIS, Abbreviated Injury Scale; SSRF, surgical stabilization of rib fractures.