Table 1

Demographics of all patients with blunt TBI

Total (N=282, 100%)REBOA (n=147, 52.1%)RT (n=135, 48.9%)P value
Age, years, mean (SD)42.3 (17)44.7 (17)39.8 (17)0.02*
Gender, n (%)0.47
 Male216 (76.6)110 (74.8)106 (78.5)
 Female66 (23.4)37 (25.2)29 (21.5)
ISS, mean (SD)40.1 (17)39.4 (16)41.0 (18)0.43
Chest AIS score, mean (SD)3.2 (1)3.0 (1)3.3 (2)0.10
Abdomen AIS score, mean (SD)2.7 (2)2.6 (2)2.9 (2)0.32
TBI, n (%)0.92
 Mild TBI76 (27.0)40 (27.2)36 (26.7)
 Severe TBI206 (73.0)107 (72.8)99 (73.3)
Admission vital signs, mean (SD)
 SBP, mm Hg102.4 (37)101.1 (35)103.8 (38)0.53
 HR, bpm112.2 (31)113.6 (31)110.7 (31)0.43
 GCS4.4 (3)4.9 (4)4 (2)0.01**
 Hgb10.8 (3)11.2 (2)10.0 (4)0.02*
 InR1.9 (2)2.0 (2)1.8 (1)0.19
 pH7.1 (0.2)7.1 (0.2)7.0 (0.2)0.11
 Lactate8.8 (5)8.2 (5)9.4 (5)0.05*
 Base deficit (−)13.6 (7)12.7 (7)14.6 (7)0.02*
AO initiation vitals, mean (SD)
 SBP, mm Hg80.7 (34)78.4 (29)83.2 (38)0.24
 HR, bpm108.8 (31)112.2 (30)105.0 (32)0.05*
 GCS3.3 (2)3.5 (2)3.0 (0)0.01*
Response to AO vitals, mean (SD)
 SBP, mm Hg114.7 (32)115.2 (32)114.1 (32)0.79
 HR, bpm106.0 (31)108.5 (30)103.2 (32)0.15
 GCS3.2 (1)3.4 (2)3.0 (0.3)0.04*
Change after AO, mean (SD)
 Change in SBP, mm Hg35.0 (44)39.8 (39)8.0 (59)0.01*
 Change in HR, bpm−0.2 (25)−0.9 (24)2.1 (27)0.60
 Change in GCS−0.1 (0.8)−0.1 (1)0.03 (0.3)0.08
Lowest base deficit (−), mean (SD)14.8 (6)14.1 (7)15.6 (6)0.05
Highest InR, mean (SD)2.1 (2)2.1 (3)2.0 (1)0.41
Highest lactate, mg/dL, mean (SD)10.2 (5)9.8 (5)10.6 (5)0.20
Lowest Hgb, g/L, mean (SD)9.1 (3)9.3 (3)8.8 (3)0.15
Lowest pH, mean (SD)7.0 (0.2)7.1 (0.2)7.0 (0.2)0.05
CPR in progress on arrival, n (%)88 (31.2)33 (22.4)55 (40.7)<0.01**
 CPR duration, minutes, mean (SD)18 (14)15 (14)20 (14)0.02*
CPR during AO, n (%)155 (55.0)44 (29.9)111 (82.2)<0.001**
Duration of initial AO, minutes, mean (SD)40.0 (47)47.1 (55)32.1 (33)0.02*
Resuscitation products, mean (SD)
 Packed red blood cells15.9 (15)17.8 (15)13.9 (14)0.03*
 Fresh frozen plasma12.5 (14)14.2 (14)10.6 (13)0.03*
 Platelets6.3 (12)7.3 (13)5.3 (10)0.14
 Cryoprecipitate1.7 (5)2.0 (7)1.4 (3)0.30
 Crystalloids4.0 (5)4.6 (7)3.3 (3)0.04*
  • *P<0.05, **P<0.01.

  • AIS, Abbreviated Injury Scale; AO, aortic occlusion; bpm, beats per minute; CPR, cardiopulmonary resuscitation; GCS, Glasgow Coma Scale; Hgb, hemoglobin; HR, heart rate; InR, international normalized ratio; ISS, Injury Severity Score; REBOA, resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion; RT, resuscitative thoracotomy; SBP, systolic blood pressure; TBI, traumatic brain injury.