Table 2

Demographics of patients by TBI severity

Mild TBI (n=76, 27.0%)Severe TBI (n=206, 73.0%)
REBOA zone 1 (n=40, 52.6%)RT (n=36, 47.4%)REBOA zone 1 (n=107, 51.9%)RT (n=99, 48.1%)
Age, years, mean (SD)49.9 (17)45.8 (19)42.8 (17)37.6 (16)*
Gender, n (%)
 Male31 (77.5)29 (80.6)79 (73.8)77 (77.8)
 Female9 (22.5)7 (19.4)28 (26.2)22 (22.2)
ISS, mean (SD)29.9 (11)34.0 (19)42.9 (16)43.5 (17)
Chest AIS score, mean (SD)2.8 (1)3.1 (2)3.1 (1)3.4 (2)
Abdomen AIS score, mean (SD)2.8 (2)3.1 (2)2.6 (2)2.8 (2)
Admission vitals, mean (SD)
 SBP, mm Hg105.3 (30)99.3 (39)99.5 (37)105.4 (38)
 HR, bpm112.3 (26)108.5 (29)114.1 (32)111.4 (32)
 GCS6.8 (5)4.8 (4)4.3 (3)3.5 (2)*
 Hgb, g/L11.2 (3)9.8 (34)11.2 (2)10.6 (3)
 InR2.2 (3)1.6 (1)1.9 (2)1.8 (1)
 pH7.1 (0.2)7.1 (0.2)7.1 (0.2)7.1 (0.2)
 Lactate9.1 (5)11.1 (5)7.9 (5)8.8 (5)
 Base deficit (−)13.6 (7)16.6 (7)12.3 (7)13.9 (7)
AO initiation vitals, mean (SD)
 SBP, mm Hg75.3 (29)74.0 (33)79.6 (30)86.5 (39)
 HR, bpm100.6 (32)95.7 (33)116.5 (28)108.5 (30)*
 GCS4.3 (3)3.0 (0)*3.2 (2)3.0 (0)
Post-AO vitals, mean (SD)
 SBP, mm Hg115.8 (40)107 (33)114.9 (28)116.8 (32)
 HR, bpm98.3 (30)104.1 (34)112.3 (29)102.9 (31)*
 GCS4.1 (3)3.0 (0.2)3.2 (1)3.0 (0.3)
Change after AO, mean (SD)
 Change in SBP, mm Hg49.0 (45)25.0 (49)36.5 (36)0.9 (63)**
 Change in HR, bpm5.2 (29)−11.2 (16)−3.2 (22)5.5 (29)
 Change in GCS−0.2 (0.9)0.03 (0.2)−0.1 (1)0.03 (0.3)
Lowest base deficit (−), mean (SD)15.3 (6.9)17.1 (6)13.6 (7)15.0 (6)
Highest InR, mean (SD)1.8 (0.9)1.8 (1)2.3 (3)2.0 (1)
Highest lactate, mg/dL, mean (SD)10.5 (6)11.6 (5)9.6 (5)10.2 (5)
Lowest Hgb, mean (SD)9.6 (2.9)8.0 (4)9.2 (3)9.1 (3)
Lowest pH, mean (SD)7.0 (0.2)7.0 (0.2)7.1 (0.2)7.0 (0.2)
CPR in progress on arrival, n (%)9 (22.5)13 (36.1)24 (22.4)42 (42.4)**
CPR duration, minutes, mean (SD)16 (19)16 (12)14 (12)22 (15)**
CPR during AO, n (%)14 (35.0)30 (83.3)**30 (28.0)81 (81.8)**
Duration of initial AO, minutes, mean (SD)34.8 (32)31.4 (22)52.5 (62)32.4 (36)*
Resuscitation products, mean (SD)
 Packed red blood cells17.8 (16)16.4 (14)17.8 (15)13.9 (14)*
 Fresh frozen plasma13.9 (15)13.3 (14)14.3 (13)9.6 (13)**
 Platelets10.1 (19)4.9 (9)6.3 (10)5.4 (10)
 Cryoprecipitate3.3 (9)1.3 (3)1.5 (6)1.4 (3)
 Crystalloids3.7 (2)2.9 (3)5.0 (7)3.5 (4)
  • *P<0.05, **P<0.01.

  • AIS, Abbreviated Injury Scale; AO, aortic occlusion; bpm, beats per minute; CPR, cardiopulmonary resuscitation; GCS, Glasgow Coma Scale; Hgb, hemoglobin; HR, heart rate; InR, international normalized ratio; ISS, Injury Severity Score; REBOA, resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion; RT, resuscitative thoracotomy; SBP, systolic blood pressure; TBI, traumatic brain injury.