Table 1

Clinical characteristics of the no-DCL, and DCL-early and DCL-delay patients

No-DCL
(36)
DCLP value*
Early
(41)
Delay
(32)
Age (years)67.1±17.764.4±18.763.8±18.00.6844
Sex
Male21 (58%)19 (46%)20 (63%)0.3441
Cause of surgery0.2459
Trauma13 (36%)18 (43%)18 (56%)
Solid organ injury1 (7%)3 (16%)3 (16%)0.7304
Colon injury3 (23%)4 (22%)14 (77%)0.0008
Lower gastrointestinal perforation23 (64%)23 (56%)14 (43%)
Malignant9 (39%)3 (13%)3 (21%)0.1166
Benign14 (61%)20 (87%)11 (79%)
Injury Severity Score18.9±9.025.9±10.326.6±9.70.083
APACHE Ⅱ score25.0±7.627.8±7.926.8±7.20.5117
Surgery start time
 08:00–19:0022 (61%)26 (63%)26 (81%)0.1529
 20:00–07:0014 (39%)15 (37%)6 (19%)
Surgery day
Weekday23 (64%)32 (78%)24 (75%)0.355
Weekend13 (36%)9 (22%)8 (25%)
Pre-initial surgery
Temperature (℃)37.0±0.736.9±1.036.7±1.10.1238
Mean pressure89.7±18.486.0±20.284.6±22.20.656
pH7.46±0.067.41±0.077.41±0.060.0061
Base excess (mmol/L)0.54±3.9–2.42±5.0–1.95±4.40.0087
INR1.17±0.11.15±0.21.21±0.40.7541
Alb (g/dL)3.03±0.83.20±0.93.19±0.80.5318
Cre (mg/dL)0.96±0.81.34±1.61.21±1.00.2705
Post-initial surgery
Alb (g/dL)2.15±0.72.16±0.62.18±0.60.9814
Cre (mg/dL)0.97±0.61.22±1.41.07±0.90.8556
48 hours after initial surgery
Alb (g/dL)2.05±0.62.20±0.52.24±0.40.4958
Cre (mg/dL)0.96±0.51.27±1.31.22±0.90.5069
Duration of initial surgery (min)180.0±67.1162.3±86.6130.7±46.60.0101
Trauma167.5±71.8110.0±55.2114.3±39.10.0565
Lower gastrointestinal perforation187.1±64.8203.3±85.4151.7±48.40.1696
Bleeding during initial surgery (mL)350.9±534.5520.3±509.41863.6±2090.10.0002
Trauma486.0±812.4736.2±646.52951.3±2200.2<0.0001
Lower gastrointestinal perforation274.6±278.6351.4±284.3465.0±584.80.4865
Red blood cell transfusions (mL)101.1±233.3122.9±228.3405.0±537.60.003
Up to 48 hours after the initial surgery
Total crystalloid administration (mL)7601.2±2918.610084.0±2979.412736.1±5245.2<0.0001
Total NPWT output (mL)1164.7±704.61336.2±721.10.2734
Total urine output (mL)3005.6±1644.52545.6±1736.53300.8±2751.10.2579
OA duration (day)5.5±3.14.2±3.10.0621
Primary fascial closure41 (100%)32 (100%)N/A
Vasopressor infusion13 (36%)14 (34%)13 (40%)0.8468
Alb administration16 (44%)27 (66%)22 (69%)0.0738
Renal replacement therapy3 (8%)13 (31%)14 (43%)0.0036
PMX-DHP5 (13%)17 (41%)13 (40%)0.0166
Postoperative complications
Surgical site infection15 (41%)20 (48%)17 (53%)0.6307
Adhesive intestinal obstruction1 (3%)4 (10%)2 (6%)0.4594
Anastomotic leak2 (6%)3 (7%)1 (3%)0.7381
Death within 28 days2 (6%)2 (5%)1 (3%)0.8863
  • Data presented as mean±SD or number of patients with percentage.

  • *Kruskal-Wallis test or Χ2 test.

  • Alb, albumin; APACHE Ⅱ, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation Ⅱ; Cre, creatinine; DCL, damage control laparotomy; INR, international normalized ratio; N/A, not applicable; NPWT, negative-pressure wound therapy; OA, open abdomen; PMX-DHP, direct hemoperfusion with polymyxin B-immobilized fiber.