Table 5

Multivariable regression of total billing cost

Estimate95% CIP value
Patient demographics
Male−$79 578−$199 772–$40 6150.18
Age (years)
 <40Ref.
 40–64−$5385−$89 424–$78 6550.90
 >64$39 818−$138 111–$217 7470.65
Out-of-town visitor−$50 191−$306 275–$205 8930.69
Injury context
Motor vehicle involvement$17 812−$124 103–$159 7280.80
Helmet use−$159 708−$413 329–$93 9130.21
Any intoxication*$231 377$32 501–$430 254 0.02
Clinical course
BIBA†−$10 475−$111 059–$90 1100.83
Number of consultations
 0–1Ref.
 >2$200 339$47 452–$353 226 0.01
Injuries
ISS
 <6Ref.
 6–9$2930−$168 469–$174 3290.97
 10–14$6862−$202 951–$216 6760.95
 >14$25 815−$258 010–$309 6400.85
Primary Injury
 OrthopedicRef.
 Facial−$67 604−$239 177–$103 9690.42
 Cranial$57 648−$161 254–$276 5500.59
Intracranial bleed‡$ 75 528$ 63 169 to $87 887 0.04
TBI$360 898$116 228–$605 568 0.006
Extremity fracture−$60 896−$225 661–$103 8700.45
Face fracture$102 330−$103 647–$308 3080.31
  • *Intoxication defined as defined by clinical evaluation, positive BAL or urine toxicology.

  • †Patient brought in by ambulance (BIBA).

  • ‡Intracranial head bleeds including subarachnoid hemorrhage, intraparenchymal hemorrhage, subdural hematoma, epidural hematoma and intraventricular hemorrhage.

  • ISS, Injury Severity Score; TBI, traumatic brain injury.