Table 1

Syndrome clinical manifestations

TimelineSyndromesClinical manifestationsSource
UndefinedSubconcussive traumaTypically undiagnosedAccumulative effect43–46
<10 daysConcussive traumaSomatic symptomsHeadache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, slurred speech imbalance, vacant stare, disorientation, or delayed response47–53
Cognitive symptomsConfusion, temporary loss of consciousness, or poor concentration and attention47–53
10 days to 3 monthsConcussive syndromeSomatic
Headache, visual disturbance, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, gait balance control difficulties, photophobia, and phonophobia54–60
Fatigue, drowsiness, difficulty concentrating, cognitive slowing, motor planning54–60
>3 months to several yearsPostconcussive syndromeSomatic symptomsHeadache, visual disturbance, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, balance difficulties, photophobia, and phonophobia48 52 61 62
Cognitive symptomsFatigue, drowsiness, difficulty concentrating, cognitive slowing48 52 61 62
Sleep symptomsDifficulty sleeping or sleeping more or less than usual48 52 61 62
Emotional symptomsMore emotional, sad, or irritable48 52 61 62
Pervasive/progressiveChronic traumatic encephalopathySomatic symptomsUnsteady gait, slow muscular movements, hesitant speech, hand or head tremors63–70
Cognitive symptomsMental confusion and short-term memory loss63–70
Behavioral symptomsIrritability, impulsivity, aggression, depression, suicidal tendencies63–70