Table 1

Patient characteristics by trauma center verification level

Patient characteristicTrauma center verification levelP value
AllLevel 1Level 2
n10 18237316451
Age, mean (SD)82.7 (8.6)82.6 (8.7)82.7 (8.5)0.8
Age (%)0.2
 65–74 years21.221.820.8
 75–84 years33.832.934.4
 ≥85 years45.045.344.8
Male (%)31.332.130.90.2
Race (%)<0.001
Injury Severity Score (%)0.1
AIS head/neck=1 (%)
AIS chest=1 (%)
AIS abdomen=1 (%)
ED heart rate (%)<0.001
 51–120 bpm92.089.593.4
 >120 bpm1.31.31.2
 0–50 bpm0.80.80.9
ED systolic blood pressure (%)<0.001
 >90 mm Hg93.290.894.5
 61–90 mm Hg0.60.60.6
 ≤60 mm Hg0.10.030.1
Glasgow Coma Scale motor (%)<0.001
Transfer in (%)10.914.38.7<0.001
Intubated (%)
Comorbid diseases %
 Active chemotherapy1.
 Advanced directive limiting care12.68.714.9<0.001
 Alcohol use disorder2.
 Bleeding risk24.723.725.20.1
 Cerebrovascular accident6.
 Chronic renal failure2.22.81.8<0.01
 Congestive heart failure10.011.39.3<0.01
 Current smoker9.89.410.00.3
 Diabetes mellitus20.
 Disseminated cancer1.11.50.9<0.01
 Drug use disorder1.21.61.0<0.01
 Functionally dependent health status49.447.350.6<0.01
 History of myocardial infarction0.
 Hypertension requiring medication67.766.568.40.1
 Liver disease1.
 Major psychiatric illness22.923.722.50.1
 Peripheral vascular disease3.
 Steroid use4.
 Therapeutic anticoagulation18.918.219.30.2
  • AIS, Abbreviated Injury Scale; bpm, beats per minute; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; ED, emergency department; mm Hg, millimeters of mercury.