Table 4

Patient outcomes (mortality or hospice, complications, and hospital length of stay) by hospital and patient characteristics

VariableMortality or hospiceComplicationsHospital length of stay
OR (95% CI)P valueOR (95% CI)P valueIncidence rate ratio (95% CI)P value
Demographics
65–74 yearsReferenceReferenceReference
75–84 years1.94 (1.33 to 2.83)<0.011.19 (0.90 to 1.57)0.221.03 (0.99 to 1.06)0.05
≥85 years3.33 (2.27 to 4.89)>0.0011.30 (0.92 to 1.84)0.141.03 (0.99 to 1.06)0.07
Male1.33 (1.07 to 1.65)<0.011.46 (1.22 to 1.75)<0.0011.07 (1.05 to 1.09)<0.001
FemaleReferenceReferenceReference
WhiteReferenceReferenceReference
Black1.05 (0.64 to 1.75)0.841.40 (0.99 to 1.99)0.061.12 (1.03 to 1.21)<0.01
Other0.39 (0.13 to 1.15)0.090.92 (0.52 to 1.63)0.781.10 (1.02 to 1.18)<0.01
Not insured1.53 (0.63 to 3.75)0.351.78 (1.08 to 2.93)<0.051.01 (0.89 to 1.14)0.91
Hospital factors
Level 1ReferenceReferenceReference
Level 20.70 (0.47 to 1.06)0.090.93 (0.71 to 1.22)0.610.95 (0.85 to 1.05)0.32
Admitted to orthopedics0.59 (0.29 to 1.21)0.150.61 (0.40 to 0.94)<0.050.89 (0.81 to 0.98)<0.05
Admitted to traumaReferenceReferenceReference
Admitted to other0.92 (0.64 to 1.30)0.630.90 (0.68 to 1.19)0.450.97 (0.90 to 1.03)0.33
Delay >48 h1.52 (1.13 to 2.06)<0.011.90 (1.54 to 2.35)<0.0011.46 (1.39 to 1.53)<0.001
Clinical measures
ISS: 9ReferenceReferenceReference
ISS: 101.35 (1.09 to 1.67)<0.011.32 (1.10 to 1.58)<0.011.03 (0.99 to 1.07)0.12
ISS: 110.37 (0.04 to 3.47)0.381.63 (0.74 to 3.62)0.231.04 (0.94 to 1.16)0.47
AIS chest=12.13 (0.52 to 8.77)0.302.35 (1.04 to 5.31)0.081.11 (0.85 to 1.44)0.44
ED systolic BP: >90 mm HgReferenceReferenceReference
ED systolic BP: 61–90 mm Hg3.49 (1.29 to 9.45)<0.051.98 (0.93 to 4.21)0.081.14 (0.99 to 1.30)0.06
ED systolic BP: ≤60 mm Hg(Omitted by model)(Omitted by model)1.02 (0.91 to 1.27)0.88
ED systolic BP: missing1.19 (0.43 to 3.31)0.741.21 (0.59 to 2.47)0.601.13 (1.01 to 1.26)<0.05
ED heart rate: 51–120 bpmReferenceReferenceReference
ED heart rate: >120 bpm0.67 (0.22 to 2.06)0.480.79 (0.37 to 1.67)0.541.08 (0.99 to 1.17)0.05
ED heart rate: 0–50 bpm0.91 (0.29 to 2.89)0.871.21 (0.57 to 2.58)0.621.04 (0.94 to 1.15)0.42
ED heart rate: missing0.98 (0.38 to 2.52)0.960.62 (0.29 to 1.34)0.230.94 (0.88 to 1.02)0.12
Intubated2.12 (0.43 to 10.54)0.364.15 (1.55 to 11.11)<0.011.75 (1.27 to 2.41)<0.01
Comorbidities
Functionally dependent health status1.80 (1.39 to 2.34)<0.0011.24 (1.02 to 1.50)<0.051.07 (1.04 to 1.10)<0.001
Congestive heart failure1.38 (1.01 to 1.89)<0.051.76 (1.37 to 2.24)<0.0011.11 (1.04 to 1.18)<0.01
Advanced directive limiting care2.21 (1.60 to 3.05)<0.0010.89 (0.69 to 1.14)0.360.99 (0.97 to 1.02)0.55
Liver disease4.20 (2.04 to 8.64)<0.0011.63 (0.76 to 3.48)0.211.08 (0.95 to 1.24)0.22
Chronic renal failure1.50 (0.74 to 3.04)0.261.46 (0.93 to 2.29)0.091.18 (1.08 to 1.30)<0.001
COPD1.16 (0.87 to 1.54)0.311.67 (1.37 to 2.04)<0.0011.11 (1.07 to 1.15)<0.001
Angina2.80 (1.55 to 5.05)<0.011.70 (0.84 to 3.44)0.140.95 (0.83 to 1.10)0.53
Cerebrovascular accident1.26 (0.78 to 2.02)0.341.28 (0.91 to 1.80)0.161.10 (1.02 to 1.17)<0.01
Steroid use0.85 (0.46 to 1.58)0.610.79 (0.49 to 1.26)0.321.00 (0.95 to 1.06)0.97
  • AIS, Abbreviated Injury Scale; BP, blood pressure; bpm, beats per minute; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; ED, emergency department; ISS, Injury Severity Score; mm Hg, millimeters of mercury.;