Table 1

Study populations

VariableOperative
(n=33)
Non-operative
(n=132)
P valueTest
Descriptive characteristics
 Age (years)59 (48 to 68)59 (46.5 to 69)0.974Mann-Whitney U
 ISS17 (17 to 25)19.5 (17 to 29)0.258Mann-Whitney U
 Number of rib fractures9 (7 to 14)9 (7 to 13)0.512Mann-Whitney U
 Flail chest segment (n=33, n=128)15 (45.5)33 (25.8)0.028χ2
 Bilateral rib fractures15 (45.5)87 (65.9)0.031χ2
 Displaced rib fracture30 (90.9)85 (65.4)0.003χ2
 First rib fracture11 (33.3)35 (26.5)0.435χ2
 Sternum fracture3 (9.1)28 (21.2)0.110χ2
 Clavicle fracture8 (24.2)19 (14.4)0.171χ2
Outcomes
 Ventilator days0 (0 to 4)0 (0 to 4)0.641Mann-Whitney U
 Hospital days11 (7 to 16)9 (4 to 18)0.136Mann-Whitney U
 ICU days6 (3 to 9)3 (2 to 9)0.040Mann-Whitney U
 Number of RBC units administered0 (0 to 1.5)0 (0 to 1)0.397Mann-Whitney U
 Severe ARDS1 (3.0)7 (5.3)>0.999Fisher’s exact
 Pneumonia7 (21.2)14 (10.7)0.142Fisher’s exact
  • ARDS, acute respiratory distress syndrome; ICU, intensive care unit; ISS, Injury Severity Score; RBC, red blood cell.