Table 1

Baseline data for BCVI and non-BCVI stroke

BCVI stroke
Median, N (%)
n=21
Non-BCVI stroke
Median, N (%)
n=78
P value
Age44 (27 to 55)71 (58 to 82)<0.001
Male7 (33.3%)46 (59.0%)0.078
Mechanism<0.001
 MVC16 (76.2%)22 (28.2%)
 MCC0 (0%)0 (0%)
 Auto-Ped2 (9.5%)2 (2.6%)
 Fall2 (9.5%)43 (55.1%)
 Other/unknown1 (4.8%)11 (14.1%)
AIS head3 (2 to 4)0 (0 to 3)<0.001
AIS face0 (0 to 1)0 (0 to 0)0.003
AIS chest2 (0 to 4)0 (0 to 3)0.009
AIS abdomen0 (0 to 3)0 (0 to 0)0.005
AIS extremity2 (0 to 3)2 (0 to 3)0.96
ISS26 (20 to 34)11 (8 to 18)<0.001
BCVI grade*<0.001
 Grade 13 (14.3%)1 (1.3%)
 Grade 26 (28.5%)0 (0%)
 Grade 33 (14.3%)0 (0%)
 Grade 49 (42.9%)3 (3.9%)
 Grade 50 (0%)1 (1.3%)
BCVI location<0.001
 Vertebral artery10 (47.6%)0 (0%)
 Internal carotid artery11 (52.4%5 (6.4%)
GCS in ED8 (3 to 15)14.5 (9 to 15)0.028
SBP in ED (mm Hg)124 (100 to 146)145 (120 to 169)0.044
HR in ED (bpm)94 (84 to 116)90 (79 to 110)0.38
Admission laboratory values
 Platelets (k/mm3)263 (209 to 299)219 (174.5 to 280.5)0.062
 Hematocrit (%)12.6 (11.7 to 13.7)12.5 (10.9 to 13.5)0.31
 TEG ACT (s)113 (97 to 121)113 (97 to 121)
 TEG MA (mm)67 (66 to 71)64.5 (58 to 69)
Medical comorbidities
Any medical comorbidity†12 (57.1%)66 (84.6%)0.013
Atrial fibrillation0 (0%)14 (18.0%)0.037
Stroke or TIA‡0 (0%)17 (21.8%)0.020
CAD/MI, CHF, PVD, hyperlipidemia, and HTN11 (52.4%)60 (76.9%)0.053
Pre-hospital ASA or Plavix1 (4.8%)12 (15.4%)0.29
Pre-hospital oral anticoagulant0 (0%)10 (12.8%)0.11
  • Summary statistics for continuous variables are median and IQR. Associations between characteristics and type of stroke were evaluated by using Wilcoxon rank-sum test for continuous variables and Fisher’s exact test for categorical variables.

  • *Five patients in the non-BCVI stroke group had a BCVI present on imaging but not responsible for the ischemic stroke.

  • †Medical comorbidities include stroke, transient ischemic attack (TIA), atrial fibrillation, coronary artery disease (CAD), myocardial infarction (MI), congestive heart failure (CHF), hypertension (HTN), peripheral vascular disease (PVD), hyperlipidemia, cancer, deep venous thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism (PE), dementia, diabetes, end-stage renal disease, morbid obesity, smoker.

  • ‡Pre-existing condition.

  • ACT, activated clotting time; ED, emergency department; HR, heart rate; MA, maximum amplitude; MCC, motorcycle crash; MVC, motor vehicle crash; SBP, systolic blood pressure; TEG, thromboelastography.