Table 1

Patient demographics and clinical characteristics in β-blocker unexposed (BB−) and β-blocker exposed (BB+) patients undergoing surgery for hip fracture

BB−BB+P value
n=1543n=900
Age in years, mean (SD)81.1 (10.6)83.4 (8.3)<0.001
Sex, n (%)0.34
 Female1049 (68.0)595 (66.1)
 Male494 (32.0)305 (33.9)
Type of β-blocker, n (%)
 Atenolol209 (23.2)
 Bisoprolol293 (32.6)
 Metoprolol350 (38.9)
 Other48 (5.3)
ASA classification, n (%)<0.001
 1160 (10.4)24 (2.8)
 2709 (45.9)292 (32.4)
 3591 (38.3)472 (52.4)
 475 (4.9)110 (12.2)
 Missing8 (0.5)2 (0.2)
Charlson Comorbidity Index, n (%)<0.001
 ≤4603 (39.1)180 (20.0)
 5–6584 (37.8)338 (37.6)
 ≥7356 (23.1)382 (42.4)
Fracture type, n (%)0.13
 Non-displaced cervical (Garden 1–2)213 (13.8)108 (12.0)
 Displaced cervical (Garden 3–4)565 (36.6)307 (34.1)
 Basicervical72 (4.7)39 (4.3)
 Pertrochanteric (two fragments)361 (23.4)226 (25.1)
 Pertrochanteric (multiple fragments)237 (15.4)142 (15.8)
 Subtrochanteric95 (6.2)78 (8.7)
Type of surgery, n (%)0.22
 One screw or pin2 (0.1)2 (0.2)
 Two screws or pins322 (20.9)162 (18.0)
 Three screws or pins2 (0.1)1 (0.1)
 Screws or pins with side plate546 (35.4)336 (37.3)
 Intramedullary rod239 (15.5)162 (18.0)
 Hemiarthroplasty309 (20.0)182 (20.2)
 Total hip replacement123 (8.0)55 (6.1)
  • ASA, American Society of Anesthesiologists; SD, Standard deviation.