Table 2

Preoperative comorbidities in β-blocker unexposed (BB−) and β-blocker exposed (BB+) patients undergoing surgery for hip fracture

BB−BB+P value
n=1543n=900
Myocardial infarction, n (%)131 (8.5)249 (27.7)<0.001
Heart failure, n (%)131 (8.5)295 (32.8)<0.001
Peripheral vascular disease, n (%)76 (4.9)104 (11.6)<0.001
Cerebrovascular event, n (%)311 (20.2)284 (31.6)<0.001
Dementia, n (%)405 (26.2)169 (18.8)<0.001
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, n (%)135 (8.7)88 (9.8)0.39
Connective tissue disease, n (%)30 (1.9)10 (1.1)0.11
Peptic ulcer disease, n (%)144 (9.3)105 (11.7)0.06
Liver disease, n (%)22 (1.4)9 (1.0)0.36
Diabetes mellitus, n (%)<0.001
 Uncomplicated93 (6.0)68 (7.6)
 End-organ damage84 (5.4)127 (14.1)
Hemiplegia, n (%)38 (2.5)31 (3.4)0.15
Chronic kidney disease, n (%)62 (4.0)115 (12.8)<0.001
Cancer, n (%)0.33
 Local tumor297 (19.2)189 (21.0)
 Metastatic41 (2.7)30 (3.3)
Leukemia, n (%)9 (0.6)8 (0.9)0.38
Lymphoma, n (%)7 (0.5)6 (0.7)0.48