Table 1

Criteria for direct trauma to torso*

1.Patient or his/her relative giving history of direct trauma to the torso
2.Signs and symptoms of direct trauma to the torso:
General examinationPallor
Distended/collapsed neck veins
Changes in mental status
Chest examinationBruises, contusion or laceration on the chest
Unequal/restricted chest movement
Tracheal deviation
Intercostal/subcostal indrawing
Chest tenderness
Hyper-resonant/dull note on percussion
Absent/diminished breath sound
Muffled heart sound
Abdominal examinationAbdominal distension
Bruises, contusion and laceration on the abdomen, flank or back
Tenderness in the abdomen
Rebound tenderness
Absent bowel sound
Unexplained abdominal pain
  • *If any one of the positive chest or abdominal examination findings or general examination findings with either one of abdominal or chest examination findings in table 1.