Table 2

Demographics and clinical characteristics by definitive management

CovariateObservation (n=272)Intervention* (n=88)P value
General characteristics
 Age, years†34 (25–53)42.5 (26–57)0.03
 Age≥65 years9.2% (25)14.8% (13)0.14
 Female sex33.1% (90)29.6% (26)0.54
 Cause of injury0.64
 Vehicular cause72.3% (202)76.1% (67)
 Fall cause14.3% (39)15.9% (14)
 Other cause11.4% (31)8.0% (7)
ISS†17 (10–24)22 (16–29)<0.001
ED GCS 3–813.6% (37)12.5% (11)0.79
ED RR<12 or>2022.3% (56)33.7% (28)0.04
ED HR>12010.1% (27)12.6% (11)0.50
Blood type O33.5% (91)47.7% (42)0.02
First Hb<10ˆ10.3% (28)10.2% (9)0.99
Radiographic characteristics
 High AAST grade (IV/V)10.29% (28)45.45% (40)<0.001
 Non-surgical abdominal finding5.2% (14)9.1% (8)0.18
 Blush10.3% (27)27.9% (24)<0.001
 HP52.2% (142)81.8% (72)<0.001
 Splenic vascular injury1.2% (3)13.3% (11)<0.001
Outcomes
 Mortality2.94 (8)3.41 (3)0.82
 ICU admission80.5% (219)98.9% (87)<0.001
 # blood products†3.5 (2–10)3 (2–6)0.45
 Hospital LOS†5 (3–10)8.5 (5–14)<0.001
 ICU LOS†2 (1–5)4 (2–8)<0.001
  • Bold values denote <0.05.

  • *Intervention: SAE (n=83) or failed NOM (n=5).

  • †Median (IQR).

  • AAST, American Association for the Surgery of Trauma; GCS, Glasgow Coma Score; HP, hemoperitoneum; ICU, intensive care unit; ISS, injury severity score; NOM, nonoperative management; SAE, splenic artery embolization.