Table 2

Characteristics by definitive management and Organ Injury Scale grade

CovariatesGrades I and IIGrade IIIGrade IVGrade V
Observation (n=201)SAE (n=14)Observation (n=92)SAE (n=34)Observation (n=30)SAE (n=33)Observation (n=2)SAE (n=11)
Median age, years36 (26–54)41.5 (24–60)31 (23.5–52)45 (32–60)**33 (25–51)43 (30–56)26.5 (22–31)26 (21–44)
Female sex69 (34.3)1 (7.1)**28 (30.4)12 (35.3)6 (20.0)7 (21.2)2 (100)6 (54.6)
Vehicular cause161 (80.1)10 (71.4)*56 (60.9)29 (85.3)**16 (53.3)20 (60.6)2 (100)9 (81.8)
Fall cause23 (11.4)4 (28.6)19 (20.7)3 (8.8)7 (23.3)8 (24.2)0 (0)1 (9.1)
Other cause17 (8.5)0 (0)17 (18.5)2 (5.9)7 (23.3)5 (15.2)0 (0)1 (9.1)
ISS, median17 (9–22)15.5 (9–27)19 (10.5–27)17 (14–27)23 (16–29)26 (20–29)*30 (22–38)35 (21–38)
ED GCS score 3–828 (13.9)6 (42.9)**13 (14.1)2 (5.9)2 (6.7)4 (12.1)0 (0)0 (0)
ED RR <12 or >2049 (27.1)4 (28.6)15 (16.7)10 (32.3)*7 (24.1)10 (31.3)0 (0)2 (22.2)
ED HR >12020 (10.1)3 (21.4)*11 (12.4)1 (3.0)*0 (0)6 (18.2)**1 (50)3 (27.3)
Blood type O70 (34.8)6 (42.9)27 (29.4)16 (47.1)*10 (33.3)18 (54.5)*0 (0)5 (45.5)
First Hgb <1027 (13.4)0 (0)9 (9.8)1 (2.9)3 (10.0)5 (15.2)0 (0)4 (36.4)
Other torso finding18 (9.0)0 (0)12 (13.0)3 (8.8)3 (10.0)4 (12.1)0 (0)2 (18.2)
Blush (any)14 (7.8)4 (28.6)**9 (10.5)6 (17.7)6 (25.0)13 (41.9)*1 (50.0)3 (27.3)
HP (any)67 (39.4)11 (84.6)**52 (70.3)23 (74.2)22 (84.6)26 (89.7)1 (50.0)10 (100)*
Moderate/large HP23 (34.3)6 (54.5)*29 (31.5)19 (55.9)**15 (50.0)20 (60.6)0 (0)9 (81.8)*
Vascular injury0 (0)1 (8.3)*1 (1.2)5 (14.7)**2 (8.3)3 (10.3)0 (0)2 (20.0)
  • *Patients who failed non-operative management (NOM) were not tabulated (grade 1, n=0; grade 2, n=0; grade 3, n=4; grade 4, n=1; grade 5, n=0). *P <0.20; **p<0.05.

  • ED, emergency department; GCS, Glasgow Coma Scale;HP, hemoperitoneum; HR, heart rate;Hgb, hemoglobin;ISS, Injury Severity Score;ISS, Injury Severity Score; RR, respiratory rate; SAE, splenic artery embolization.