Table 1

Demographic information of all trauma transfer patients analyzed in 2014 NTDB database (n=469 407)

Outcome variableHEMS (n=44 637)Ground ambulance (n=424 770)P value
Age40.2 (40.8)39.1 (23.24)<0.0001
GCS score10.5 (6.4)11.7 (6.1)<0.0001
Blunt98.3% (43 900)98.8% (419 637)<0.0001
Penetrating1.7% (737)1.2% (5132)<0.0001
Gender (male)31 587 (70.8%)250 981 (59.1%)<0.0001
Ethnicity<0.0001
 White35 044 (78.5%)293 344 (69.1%)<0.0001
 Black3930 (8.8%)64 737 (15.2%)
 Hispanic4260 (9.5%)44 898 (10.6%)
 Asian540 (1.2%)9189 (2.2%)
ISS16.0 (48.3)10.9 (46.9)<0.0001
Mortality6.0% (2688)2.9% (12 352)<0.0001
LOS (days)8.0 (10.6)5.2 (7.4)<0.0001
ICU (days)3.0 (7.2)0.5 (4.3)<0.0001
Ventilator (days)1.16 (5.6)−0.4 (3.1)<0.0001
ISS AIS score14.8 (33.5)10.2 (39.4)<0.0001
Total prehospital time (min)168.9 (428.1)109.1 (390.0)<0.0001
  • AIS, Abbreviated Injury Scale; GCS, Glasgow Coma Scale; HEMS, helicopter emergency medical services; ICU, intensive care unit; ISS, Injury Severity Score; LOS, length of stay; NTDB, National Trauma Data Bank.