Table 3

Multinomial logistic regression model for predictors of ED disposition of patients with TBI

 Reference (ref): discharged home n=3940 Admitted Died Others Unadjusted cOR (95% CI) Adjusted cOR (95% CI) Unadjusted cOR (95% CI) Adjusted cOR (95% CI) Unadjusted cOR (95% CI) Adjusted cOR (95% CI) Sex: male Ref Ref Ref Sex: female 0.85 (0.70 to 1.04) 0.87 (0.71 to 1.08) 1.01 (0.60 to 1.72) 1.17 (0.65 to 2.10) 0.98 (0.77 to 1.25) 1.00 (0.78 to 1.59) Age categories: 0–18 years Ref Ref Ref 19–45 1.15 (0.95 to 1.38) 1.14 (0.94 to 1.39) 1.44 (0.83 to 2.5) 1.56 (0.86 to 2.86) 0.99 (0.79 to 1.25) 0.99 (0.78 to 1.25) >45 1.22 (0.92 to 1.60) 1.23 (0.93 to 1.64) 1.08 (0.46 to 2.5) 1.33 (0.54 to 3.23) 0.82 (0.57 to 1.17) 0.80 (0.55 to 1.15) Injury circumstances Area of residence: urban Ref Ref Ref Rural 0.98 (0.95 to 1.01) 0.98 (0.95 to 1.01) 0.55 (0.37 to 0.83)* 0.54 (0.35 to 0.83)* 0.99 (0.97 to 1.02) 0.99 (0.97 to 1.02) Place of injuries: home Ref Ref Ref Occupational area 1.14 (0.83 to 1.57) 1.16 (0.83 to 1.63) 1.82 (0.74 to 4.5) 2.25 (0.85 to 6.0) 1.38 (0.92 to 2.07) 1.47 (0.97 to 2.24) Street/Highway 1.14 (0.9 to 1.46) 1.01 (0.76 to 1.34) 1.44 (0.9 to 1.46) 1.63 (0.67 to 3.95) 1.28 (0.93 to 1.75) 1.23 (0.86 to 1.77) Others 1.03 (0.67 to 1.58) 1.01 (0.64 to 1.57) 0.64 (0.13 to 3.13) 0.50 (0.10 to 2.70) 1.25 (0.73 to 2.13) 1.21 (0.70 to 2.09) Mode of arrival: private vehicle Ref Ref Ref Ambulance 0.97 (0.8 to 1.17) 0.99 (0.83 to 1.21) 1.4 (0.86 to 2.29) 1.54 (0.90 to 2.62) 1.03 (0.81 to 1.32) 1.06 (0.83 to 1.35) Police vehicle 1.02 (0.85 to 1.22) 1.04 (0.86 to 1.27) 0.99 (0.6 to 1.6) 1.12 (0.64 to 1.98) 1.08 (0.86 to 1.36) 1.11 (0.88 to 1.35) Motorcycle taxi 1.26 (0.94 to 1.67) 1.32 (0.98 to 1.78) 0.26 (0.06 to 1.13) 0.28 (0.06 to 1.24) 1.29 (0.9 to 1.83) 1.32 (0.92 to 1.89) Others 0.9 (0.54 to 1.5) 0.91 (0.54 to 1.54) 0.42 (0.05 to 3.22) 0.41 (0.05 to 3.27) 1.25 (0.7 to 2.24) 1.21 (0.67 to 2.20) Transport time <30 min Ref Ref Ref 30 min–1 hour 1.11 (0.89 to 1.39) 1.21 (0.96 to 1.52) 0.61 (0.33 to 1.14) 0.68 (0.35–1.32) 1.07 (0.80 to 1.42) 1.15 (0.86 to 1.54) >1–2 hours 1.04 (0.83 to 1.32) 1.08 (0.85 to 1.38) 0.66 (0.35 to 1.25) 0.65 (0.33 to 1.29) 1.16 (0.87 to 1.56) 1.22 (0.91 to 1.64) >2–6 hours 1.14 (0.89 to 1.45) 1.15 (0.89 to 1.47) 1.46 (0.83 to 2.58) 1.36 (0.73 to 2.54) 1.29 (0.95 to 1.75) 1.31 (0.96 to 1.78) >6–24 hours 1.19 (0.87 to 1.63) 1.21 (0.87 to 1.67) 0.88 (0.38 to 2.05) 0.95 (0.39 to 2.32) 1.71 (1.17 to 2.46)* 1.76 (1.21 to 2.57)* >24 hours 1.15 (0.22 to 1.3.62) 1.23 (0.89 to 1.70) 0.21 (0.05 to 0.92)* 0.26 (0.06 to 1.20) 1.11 (0.74 to 1.65) 1.17 (0.78 to 1.76) Injury characteristics and severity Cause of TBI: RTI Ref Ref Ref Falls 0.79 (0.59 to 1.05) 0.81 (0.58 to 1.12) 1.15 (0.57 to 2.32) 1.98 (0.82 to 4.73) 0.96 (0.68 to 1.35) 1.06 (0.72 to 1.57) Intentional Injuries 0.87 (0.74 to 1.02) 0.83 (0.69 to 0.99)* 0.88 (0.56 to 1.38) 0.91 (0.53 to 1.56) 0.82 (0.67 to 1.00) 0.81 (0.64 to 1.01) Others 0.81 (0.58 to 1.14) 0.81 (0.57 to 1.17) 1.06 (0.44 to 2.54) 1.46 (0.55 to 3.83) 1.08 (0.72 to 1.60) 1.12 (0.74 to 1.71) Type of head injury: open Ref Ref Ref Closed 0.93 (0.81 to 1.10) 0.91 (0.78 to 1.06) 0.77 (0.51 to 1.15) 0.68 (0.44 to 1.05) 1.02 (0.85 to 1.23) 0.99 (0.82 to 1.20) Others 1.27 (0.52 to 3.09) 0.98 (0.39 to 2.44) 2.73 (0.56 to 13.26) 1.22 (0.21 to 7.21) 1.38 (0.47 to 4.04) 1.26 (0.43 to 3.73) ﻿GCS on arrival: 13–15 Ref Ref Ref GCS 9–12 1.03 (0.86 to 1.23) 1.48 (1.18 to 1.86)* 1.04 (0.64 to 1.68) 3.04 (1.69 to 5.46)* 0.78 (0.62 to 0.98)* 0.98 (0.74 to 1.31) GCS ≤8 0.99 (0.81 to 1.21) 1.75 (1.32 to 2.33)* 1.07 (0.63 to 1.82) 9.65 (4.22 to 22.07)* 0.88 (0.68 to 1.12) 1.23 (0.87 to 1.75) ﻿Change in GCS: none Ref Ref Ref GCS dropped 2.89 (2.37 to 3.52)* 2.92 (2.38 to 3.57)* 31.82 (13.72 to 73.76)* 31.2 (13.23 to 73.56)* 1.54 (1.21 to 1.96)* 1.63 (1.27 to 2.09)* GCS improved 1.11 (0.94 to 1.32) 0.87 (0.70 to 1.10) 1.5 (0.56 to 4.02) 0.50 (0.17 to 1.49) 0.85 (0.70 to 1.04) 0.86 (0.66 to 1.13) ﻿Number of serious injuries: none Ref Ref Ref One 0.94 (0.80 to 1.13) 0.94 (0.77 to 1.15) 1.83 (0.98 to 3.40) 1.69 (0.86 to 3.43) 0.77 (0.62 to 0.95)* 0.81 (0.64 to 1.02) Two or more 1.24 (0.78 to 1.99) 1.17 (0.71 to 1.91) 5.56 (2.11 to 14.62)* 4.52 (1.54 to 13.25)* 0.78 (0.42 to 1.46) 0.74 (0.39 to 1.38) ﻿Kampala Trauma Score 0.96 (0.93 to 0.99)* 0.94 (0.90 to 0.98)* 1.00 (0.91 to 1.10) 0.87 (0.78 to 0.98)* 0.95 (0.91 to 0.98)* 0.96 (0.91 to 1.01) ﻿Revised Trauma Score 0.98 (0.93 to 1.02) 1.01 (0.95 to 1.06) 0.99 (0.87 to 1.12) 1.06 (0.90 to 1.24) 0.99 (0.94 to 1.05) 0.99 (0.93 to 1.06)
• cOR, conditional OR; ED, emergency department; GCS, Glasgow Coma Scale; RTI, road traffic injury; TBI, traumatic brain injury.

• *P value <0.05