Table 4

Association of TIMP-3* and clinical outcomes after traumatic brain injury in univariate and multivariate logistic regression models

Independent variables in modelFor each 1000 pg/mL increase in TIMP-3OR (95% CI)†P values
TIMP-31.5 (1.1 to 2.1)0.006
TIMP-3, shock by arrival base deficit‡1.4 (1.0 to 1.9)0.031
TIMP-3, vasopressor on day of admission1.6 (1.2 to 2.2)0.004
TIMP-3, age>601.5 (1.1 to 2.1)0.005
TIMP-3, GCS score1.5 (1.1 to 2.1)0.006
TIMP-3, AIS Head score1.5 (1.1 to 2.0)0.009
TIMP-3, platelet transfusion§1.5 (1.1 to 2.1)0.006
TIMP-3, pRBC transfusion§1.5 (1.1 to 2.1)0.007
TIMP-3, plasma transfusion§1.6 (1.1 to 2.1)0.005
TIMP-3, AIS Head score, male sex, age>60, crystalloid, platelet, blood, plasma transfusion§, shock‡1.4 (1.0 to 2.0)0.036
TIMP-31.7 (1.2 to 2.3)0.002
TIMP-3, shock by arrival base deficit‡1.6 (1.2 to 2.2)0.005
TIMP-3, vasopressor on day of admission1.7 (1.2 to 2.4)0.002
TIMP-3, age>60 years1.7 (1.2 to 2.3)0.002
TIMP-3, GCS score1.6 (1.2 to 2.3)0.005
TIMP-3, AIS Head score1.7 (1.2 to 2.5)0.001
TIMP-3, platelet transfusion§1.7 (1.2 to 2.3)0.002
TIMP-3, pRBC transfusion§1.7 (1.2 to 2.3)0.002
TIMP-3, plasma transfusion§1.7 (1.3 to 2.4)0.001
TIMP-3, AIS Head score, age>60 years, crystalloid,platelet, blood, plasma transfusion§, shock‡1.9 (1.2 to 2.8)0.002
  • Models exclude subjects with AIS Head score=6 (non-survivable injury).

  • *Plasma sample obtained on arrival to the ED.

  • †Regression model output for scaled predictor variable is interpreted as the change in the OR for outcome of interest for each 1000 pg/mL increase in the plasma concentration of TIMP-3 on ED arrival, holding all other variables in the model constant.

  • ‡Base deficit of <−4 on ED arrival arterial blood gas analysis.

  • §Adjusted models control for transfusion of blood products in the first 12 hours of admission.

  • AIS, Abbreviated Injury Scale; ARDS, acute respiratory distress syndrome; ED, emergency department; GCS, Glasgow Coma Scale score on ED arrival; pRBCs, packed red blood cells; TIMP-3, tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase 3.