Table 2

EAST evidence-based recommendations for the primary prevention of contact sports-related concussions

PICO questionRecommendation
1. In pediatric athletes, does concussion education of players, parents, and coaches vs no education reduce the incidence of sports-related concussions?Conditional recommendation for concussion education as a primary preventive intervention against sports-related concussions in pediatric athletes.
2. In adult amateur athletes, does concussion education of players and coaches vs no education reduce the incidence of sports-related concussions?Conditional recommendation for concussion education as a primary preventive intervention against sports-related concussions in adult amateur athletes.
3. In pediatric athletes participating in helmeted contact sports, does type of helmet reduce the incidence of sports-related concussions?Strong recommendation for head protective equipment as a primary preventive intervention against sports-related concussions in pediatric athletes.
4. In adult amateur athletes participating in helmeted contact sports, does type of helmet reduce the incidence of sports-related concussions?Strong recommendation for head protective equipment as a primary preventive intervention against sports-related concussions in adult amateur athletes.Strong recommendation for newer football helmet technology as an effective intervention for the primary prevention of sports-related concussions in adult amateur athletes.
5. For pediatric athletes, do rules prohibiting high-risk activities vs. no activity restriction reduce the incidence of sports-related concussions?Conditional recommendation for rules governing high-risk activity as a primary preventive intervention against sports-related concussions in pediatric athletes.Strong recommendation for rules that prohibit body-checking at younger age in ice hockey as an effective intervention for the primary prevention of sports-related concussions in pediatric athletes.
6. For adult amateur athletes, do rules prohibiting high-risk activities vs. no activity restriction reduce the incidence of sports-related concussions?Conditional recommendation for rules governing high-risk activity as a primary preventive intervention against sports-related concussions in adult amateur athletes.
7. In adult amateur athletes, does exercise to increase neck mass vs. no directed exercise reduce the incidence of sports-related concussions?Conditional recommendation for neck strengthening exercise program as a primary preventive intervention against sports-related concussions in adult amateur athletes.
  • EAST, Eastern Associationfor the Surgery of Trauma; PICO, population, intervention, comparator, and outcomes.