Table 1

Demographic and hospital characteristics of firearm injury hospitalizations, NIS 1993–2014

nTotal1993–19961997–20022003–20072008–2014P
648 662152 442167 900144 942183 378
Demographic
 Age<0.0001
  0–1536 032 (5.6)11 123 (7.3)10 188 (6.1)7432 (5.1)7289 (4.0)
  16–45534 140 (82.3)127 595 (83.7)139 609 (83.2)119 477 (82.4)147 458 (80.4)
  46+78 491 (12.1)13 724 (9.0)18 103 (10.8)18 033 (12.4)28 631 (15.6)
 Race<0.0001
  White146 805 (22.6)33 754 (22.1)35 163 (20.9)28 428 (19.6)49 461 (27.0)
  Black260 478 (40.2)67 292 (44.1)59 955 (35.7)51 193 (35.3)82 038 (44.7)
  Hispanic94 519 (14.6)23 800 (15.6)21 100 (12.6)22 625 (15.6)26 994 (14.7)
  Other26 379 (4.1)5434 (3.6)6406 (3.8)5827 (4.0)8712 (4.8)
  Unknown120 481 (18.6)22 162 (14.5)45 277 (27.0)36 869 (25.4)16 173 (8.8)
 Sex0.38
  Male575 604 (89.0)134 820 (88.5)149 548 (89.1)128 306 (89.3)162 931 (89.1)
  Female71 161 (11.0)17 598 (11.6)18 310 (10.9)15 402 (10.7)19 851 (10.9)
 Insurance0.13
  Private/Medicare178 774 (27.8)38 604 (25.5)51 107 (30.9)39 326 (27.6)49 737 (27.3)
  Self-pay202 409 (31.5)50 089 (33.0)54 395 (32.9)45 312 (31.8)52 614 (28.9)
  Medicaid/No charge/Other260 902 (40.6)62 969 (41.5)60 068 (36.3)57 945 (40.6)79 920 (43.9)
 Neighborhood income quartiles<0.0001
  ≤$24 999275 761 (45.2)75 036 (55.9)41 096 (25.7)71 332 (51.2)88 297 (50.1)
  $25,000–$34 999172 802 (28.3)39 604 (29.5)54 244 (34.0)34 727 (24.9)44 228 (25.1)
  $35,000–$44 999104 320 (17.1)14 542 (10.8)38 080 (23.8)22 393 (16.1)29 305 (16.6)
  ≥$45 00056 906 (9.3)5076 (3.8)26 332 (16.5)10 986 (7.9)14 512 (8.2)
Hospital
 Location0.015
  Rural29 983 (4.8)9902 (6.5)9650 (5.8)5749 (4.0)4683 (3.0)
  Urban589 822 (95.2)142 021 (93.5)157 960 (94.2)139 180 (96.0)150 661 (97.0)
 Teaching hospital0.002
  Non-teaching156 828 (25.4)56 146 (37.0)41 550 (24.8)32 467 (22.4)26 665 (17.3)
  Teaching461 547 (74.6)95 777 (63.0)126 060 (75.2)112 460 (77.6)127 249 (82.7)
 Size0.097
  Small32 846 (5.1)11 604 (7.6)8399 (5.0)6150 (4.2)6693 (3.7)
  Medium157 507 (24.4)42 122 (27.7)48 080 (28.7)30 085 (20.8)37 220 (20.7)
  Large454 296 (70.5)98 197 (64.6)111 131 (66.3)108 693 (75.0)136 275 (75.6)
 Region0.31
  Northeast111 872 (17.3)30 327 (19.9)25 994 (15.5)20 618 (14.2)34 933 (19.1)
  Midwest123 618 (19.1)21 243 (13.9)39 404 (38.6)29 449 (20.3)33 522 (18.3)
  South264 577 (40.8)56 585 (37.1)64 875 (38.6)64 210 (44.3)78 907 (43.0)
  West148 596 (22.9)44 287 (29.1)37 627 (22.4)30 666 (21.2)36 017 (19.6)
Intent of injury0.025
 Assault/Legal389 506 (60.1)89 183 (58.5)98 547 (58.7)89 545 (61.8)1 12 231 (61.2)
 Unintentional157 225 (24.2)38 738 (25.4)42 348 (25.2)32 733 (22.6)43 406 (23.7)
 Intentional self-harm55 601 (8.6)11 270 (7.4)13 628 (8.1)12 263 (8.5)18 440 (10.1)
 Undetermined46 330 (7.1)13 251 (8.7)13 378 (8.0)10 401 (7.2)9301 (5.1)
Location of injury<0.0001
 Head or neck75 594 (11.9)15 403 (10.5)19 234 (11.9)17 086 (12.2)22 769 (13.0)
 Face24 626 (3.9)5090 (3.5)6099 (3.8)5402 (3.9)7455 (4.2)
 Chest81 039 (12.7)17 442 (11.9)20 635 (12.8)18 428 (13.2)23 092 (13.2)
 Abdominal/pelvic contents152 231 (23.9)33 981 (23.2)39 470 (24.4)34 841 (24.9)42 187 (24.0)
 Extremities/pelvic girdle195 070 (30.6)43 096 (29.5)46 912 (29.0)42 601 (30.5)58 583 (33.4)
 External109 298 (17.1)31 178 (21.3)29 540 (18.3)21 523 (15.4)21 532 (12.3)
  • All values are weighted frequencies (n) and weighted percentages (%) using survey weighted analysis except Elixhauser comorbidity score presented as mean and SD. From 1993 to 1997, median household income fell into four categories: (1) $1–$25 000, (2) $25 001–$30 000, (3) $30 001–$35,000, (4) $35 001 and above. From 1998 to 2002, median household income fell into four categories: (1) $1– $24 999, (2) $25 000–$34 999, (3) $35 000– $44 999, (4) $45 000 and above. From 2003 onwards, median household income was present in the data as national quartiles for patient’s ZIP Code.