Table 1

Summary of evidence for preventative efficacy of HVIPs in adult patients (age 18+) treated for intentional violent injury

StudyStudy overview and effect sizeRisk of biasQualityImportance
Aboutanos et al6Randomized clinical trial; Group I received psychoeducational intervention and Group II psychoeducational intervention plus wraparound services, compared to historical trauma registry data; no interventional effect on recidivism.HLL
Becker (2004)12Retrospective case–control study; Crisis intervention specialists with upbringings similar to the patients met with enrollees and their families, followed by assistance with engaging community resources, home visits and housing; the intervention had no reported effect on intentional violent injury and/or death recidivism.HLL
Chong et al34Cost-effectiveness analysis. Markov model estimating a US$750 000–1 million annual savings by decreasing recidivism from 4% to 2.5% for participants in HVIP.
Cooper (2006)14Randomized clinical trial; additional psychosocial services provided for the intervention group; reported 5% intentional violent injury and/or death recidivism rate.HLL
Gomez (2012)32Prospective observational study; tailored service plans and referred community services; violent injury recidivism rate reduced from 8.7% to 2.9%; due to only having access to the abstract reviews authors not privy to any statistical significance reporting.HLL
Juillard (2015)33Cost-effectiveness analysis. Markov model estimating a US$6000 cost savings per patient over 5 years for a 7% recidivism rate.
Shibru (2007)18Retrospective cohort study; peer interventionists for hospitalized violently injured patients, no set curriculum of intervention; no reduction in intentional violent injury and/or death recidivism.HLL
Smith (2013)24Retrospective observational study; reduction rate in intentional violent injury recidivism.HLL
Zun (2006)30Randomized clinical trial; the intervention group provided assessment and 6-month case management in contrast to the control group receiving a resource list; at 6 months violence victimization rates were 6.5% for the intervention group and 7.4% for the control; rates based on self-reports.HLL
Zun (2004)31Randomized clinical trial; the intervention group received case management and community-based resources and the control group received a brochure describing available resources, measured outcome at 6 and 12 months was attitude toward violence; no demonstrated effect.HLVL
  • H, high; HVIPs, Hospital-based violence intervention programs; L, low; VL, very low.