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Acute Care Surgery Billing, Coding and Documentation Series Part 3: Coding of Additional Select Procedures; Modifiers; Telemedicine Coding; Robotic Surgery
  1. Thomas Esposito1,
  2. Robert Reed2,
  3. Raeanna C Adams3,
  4. Samir Fakhry4,
  5. Dolores Carey5,
  6. Marie L Crandall6
  1. 1Constant Care/eICU, OSF HealthCare System, Peoria, Illinois, USA
  2. 2Indiana University Health, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA
  3. 3Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee, USA
  4. 4Surgery, HCA Healthcare, Inc, Nashville, Tennessee, USA
  5. 5Loyola University Health System, Maywood, Illinois, USA
  6. 6Surgery, University of Florida College of Medicine – Jacksonville, Jacksonville, Florida, USA
  1. Correspondence to Dr Thomas Esposito; tesposi{at}


This series of reviews has been produced to assist both the experienced surgeon and coder, as well as those just starting practice that may have little formal training in this area. Understanding this complex system will allow the provider to work “smarter, not harder” and garner the maximum compensation for their work. We hope we have been successful in achieving and that goal that this series will provide useful information and be worth the time invested in reading it by bringing tangible benefits to the efficiency of practice and its reimbursement. This third section deals with coding of additional select procedures, modifiers, telemedicine coding, and robotic surgery.

  • critical care
  • documentation
  • education

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  • Contributors All authors have made significant contributions to the conceptualization, content, and revision of this work.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent for publication Not required.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; internally peer reviewed.

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